Monday, May 25, 2020
Causes of the Great Depression Many people think that the Great Depression was caused solely by the stock market crash. Anybody who tells you this probably didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pass U.S. History in high school. The fact is, the Great Depression was caused many different factors. Four of which were overproduction, uneven distribution of wealth, protective tariffs, and the four Ã¢â¬Å"sick industriesÃ¢â¬ of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;After World War I, new technological improvements helped factories to produce higher quantities of goods using smaller amounts of employees. Fewer workers meant less money being redistributed to the consumers to purchase products. America didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a necessity for this higher quantity of goods with less peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In reaction to this, other nations stopped buying American-made goods and the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ economy floundered because of this. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;During the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, four of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading industries began to struggle. First, railroads had difficulties because of the growing competition from cars, trucks, and busses. Second, textiles floundered because of the foreign competition from India, China, Japan, and Latin America. Furthermore, the revolutionary transformation in women clothing reduced the amount of material needed and thus lowered the demand for cloth. Third, the coal mining industry struggled because of competition from cheaper, more widely available resources such as natural gas, oil, and hydroelectric power. Fourth, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s agriculture industry staggered chiefly from overproduction. Many farmers borrowed money to expand their operations and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay back their loans because the prices of crops dropped about 50 percent due to foreign agricultural competition. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In conclusion, the Great Depression canÃ¢â¬â¢t be attributed to just one cause. However, among overproduction; uneven distribution of wealth; protective tariffs; and the struggling of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading industries, the largest contributor to causing the depression, in my opinion, was the unequal distribution of income. I believe this because if congress attempted to redistribute money to the consumers, people would have been able to purchaseShow MoreRelatedCauses Of The Great Depression1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshaving classic satisfying life concluded when the Great Depression ushered in the negative trend that would impact the U.S. economy in 1929. Therefore, what happened? In this essay, we will discuss what the Great Depression was for the Americans, the causes of the Great Depression, and the U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s recovery from the Great Depression. The Great Depression One of the terrifying times in the U.S. history is the Great Depression. The Great Depression is an economic phenomenon, which according to theRead MoreGreat Depression and Its Causes1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe causes of the Great Depression of the 1920s and 1930s has been argued about for generations. Most people agree on several key topics and that it was the severity and length of time the Depression lasted that was actually the most remarkable. Hoover made many noteworthy attempts to try and solve this crisis, yet in the end it was President Roosevelt and his New Deal, that brought many Americans hope for the future. The first factor in the start of the Depression was the lack of diversityRead MoreCauses of the Great Depression2012 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages The causes of the Great Depression in the early 20th century is a matter of active debate between economists. Although the popular belief is that the main cause was the crashing Stock Market in 1929 caused the Great Depression, There were other major economic events that contributed just as much as the crash, such as AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s overextension of credit, an unequal distribution of wealth, over production of goods, and a severe drop in business revenue. As these events transpired the state of economicRead More Causes of the Great Depression Essay1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCauses of the Great Depression Throughout the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, new industries and new methods of production led to prosperity in America. America was able to use its great supply of raw materials to produce steel, chemicals, glass, and machinery that became the foundation of an enormous boom in consumer goods (Samuelson, 2). Many US citizens invested on the stock market, speculating to make a quick profit. This great prosperity ended in October 1929. People began to fear that the boom was going toRead MoreCauses of the Great Depression Essay1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe United States has experienced recessions about every twenty years (give or take) since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Nothing that had happened before was quite this serious, chaotic, or as long lasting as the Great Depression. The crash was felt far beyond those on the trading floors. Speculators who borrowed money from the banks to buy their stocks could not repay the loans because they could not sell stocks, because no one else would buy them. This caused many banks to fail,Read MoreCauses of The Great Depression Essay701 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Imagine a society where over 25% of the population was unemployed. That is what it reached during The Great Depression (Ã¢â¬Å"The Great DepressionÃ¢â¬ ). During the depression unemployment rates were the highest they have ever been. It is highly speculated to this day on what exactly caused The Great Depression. Most historians agree it was a chain of events, one after another, that brought our country into chaos. Some events were more impactful than others. These events caused pandemonium amongRead MoreEssay on The Causes of the Great Depression697 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Causes of The Great Depression History Imagine waking up one morning, only to find out that all your investments and savings are gone. So if your bank that you invested all your money in collapsed, you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get any money back. This is what happened to millions of Americans during the 1930s. This era was called the great depression. The great depression was one of the worst economy issues we have ever had in history. It was a hard time for everyone. The great depression started in 1929Read More The Cause of the Great Depression Essay552 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Cause of the Great Depression The economic expansion of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, with its increased production of goods and high profits, culminated in immense consumer speculation that collapsed with disastrous results in 1929 causing AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Depression. There were a number or contributing factors to the depression, with the largest and most important one being a general loss of confidence in the American economy. The reason it escalated was a general misunderstanding of recessions byRead MoreCauses Of The Great Depression And The Great Recession2292 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages1. Examine the causes of the Great Depression of the 1930s and consider what similarities and differences can be drawn with the problems from the financial and economic crisis which began in 2008. Introduction 2007-2009 in America has often been described as the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression in 1929. There was lots of debate whether the economy was slipping back to double dip recession but there is considerable evidence that the economic crisis in 2008 is worse than the crisisRead MoreCauses of the Great Depression Essay651 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn the 1920s, American economy had a great time. The vast majority of Americans in 1929 foresaw a continuation of the dizzying economic growth that had taken place in most of the decade. However, the prices of stock crested in early September of 1929. The price of stock fell gradually during most of September and early October. On Ã¢â¬Å"Black TuesdayÃ¢â¬ 29 October 1929, the stock market fell by forty points. After that, a historically great and long economic depression started and lasted until the start of
Friday, May 15, 2020
The United States has three branches of government: the executive, the legislative and the judicial. Each of these branches has a distinct and essential role in the function of the government, and they were established in Articles 1 (legislative), 2 (executive) and 3 (judicial) of the U.S. Constitution. The Executive Branch The executive branch consists of the president, vice president and 15 Cabinet-level departments such as State, Defense, Interior, Transportation, and Education. The primary power of the executive branch rests with the president, who chooses his vice president, and his Cabinet members who head the respective departments. A crucial function of the executive branch is to ensure that laws are carried out and enforced to facilitate such day-to-day responsibilities of the federal government as collecting taxes, safeguarding the homeland and representing the United States political and economic interests around the world. The President The president leads American people and the federal government. He or she also acts as the head of state, and as Commander in Chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is responsible for formulating the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign and domestic policy and for developing the annual federal operating budget with the approval of Congress. The president is freely elected by the people through the Electoral College system. The president serves a four-year term in office and can be elected no more than twice. The Vice President The vice president assists and advises the president, and must be ready at all times to assume the presidency in the event of the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s death, resignation, or temporary incapacitation. The Vice President also serves as the President of the United States Senate, where he or she casts the deciding vote in the case of a tie. The vice president is elected along with the president as a Ã¢â¬Å"running mateÃ¢â¬ and can be elected and serve an unlimited number of four-year under multiple presidents. The Cabinet The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Cabinet serves as advisors to the president. They include the vice president, the heads of the 15 executive departments, and other high-ranking government officials. Each Cabinet member also holds a spot in the presidential line of succession. After the Vice President, Speaker of the House, and President pro tempore of the Senate, the line of succession continues with the Cabinet offices in the order in which the departments were created. With the exception of the vice president, Cabinet members are nominated by the president and must be approved by a simple majority of the Senate. The Legislative Branch The legislative branch consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives, collectively known as the Congress. There are 100 senators; each state has two. Each state has a different number of representatives, with the number determined by the states population, through a process known as apportionment. At present, there are 435 members of the House. The legislative branch, as a whole, is charged with passing the nations laws and allocating funds for the running of the federal government and providing assistance to the 50 U.S. states. The Judicial Branch The judicial branch consists of the United States Supreme Court and lower federal courts. Under the Supreme Courts constitutional jurisdiction, its primary function is to hear cases that challenge the constitutionality of legislation or require interpretation of that legislation. The U.S. Supreme Court has nine Justices, who are nominated by the president and must be confirmed by a simple majority vote of the Senate. Once appointed, Supreme Court justices serve until they retire, resign, die or are impeached. The lower federal courts also decide cases dealing with the constitutionality of laws, as well as cases involving the laws and treaties of the U.S. ambassadors and public ministers, disputes between two or more states, admiralty law, also known as maritime law, and bankruptcy cases. Decisions of the lower federal courts can be and often are appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Checks and Balances Why are there three separate and distinct branches of government, each with a different function? The framers of the Constitution did not wish to return to the totalitarian system of governance imposed on colonial America by the British government. To ensure that no single person or entity had a monopoly on power, the Founding Fathers designed and instituted a system of checks and balances. The presidents power is checked by the Congress, which can refuse to confirm his appointees, for example, and has the power to impeach or remove, a president. Congress may pass laws, but the president has the power to veto them (Congress, in turn, may override a veto). And the Supreme Court can rule on the constitutionality of a law, but Congress, with approval from two-thirds of the states, may amend the Constitution.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The nature of discovery, while complex, can lead to a transformative contemplation of new worlds and values concerning both one s self and one s world. It is the personal discoveries and rediscoveries made thorough the reflection of past actions or experiences that allows an individual to ponder their perception of world views and values in a new light. A diary is often used as a means of self-reflection and as a way to record your valued thoughts which overtime can become an expression of inner awareness. Sometimes if re-read, morals and views which had not yet been realised can become prominent in one s life. The play The Tempest written by William Shakespeare encompasses many personal discoveries, which lead to consideration of the authority the characters rightfully possess and the importance of forgiveness and reconciliation in their lives. Similarly the modern film Boyhood directed by Richard Linklater, also explores these ideas, however, they are depicted in relation to growin g from childhood to adulthood and developing an individual ethical compass. In The Tempest, Shakespeare uses Usurpation to critique the characters discoveries of rightful authority according to the hierarchy of Elizabethan society. The audience is positioned to question accepted lines of leadership when Prospero recalls his past and Miranda is manipulated by negative connotation Ã¢â¬Å"sucked my verdure out on t to believe revenge is required for his stolen throne. However, Shakespeare reveals,
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the International Marketing for Common Business Advertisement. Answer: 1: What communication messages about Australia as a tourist destination are most likely to appeal to middle class consumers from Canada? It is very easy to say Canada is very cold that can be tyrant for a person to live for the whole year. However, Australia is comfortable for the people of Canada. Canada mostly have more than 200 days with cold weather and they just hope the condition doesnt get worst. From the recent research it is pointed that the Canada people are choosing Australia as because of the temperature and the scenic beauty (Dominici, 2009). Canadian cannot get the enjoyment of oceans mostly and all the rivers are frozen maximum of the time. White snow and frowzy wind can be monotonous for a person easily here. However, mostly the middle class people are choosing the Australia for their holidays. There are some certain reasons amongst which the equality of economy and the weather difference. Nevertheless, austral has some short of marketing activities in the Canada to introduce the tourism for mainly the middle class people who can easily afford Australia as their tourist destination (Dominici, 2009). Ma king advertisements in the Canadian televisions, creating posters for the tourism Australia, and the most common the advertisement of their new campaign Visit Australia which is getting a huge response from all over the world. Apart from these, Australian tourism has some kind of communication messages which is attracting the community of middle class Canadians. The process of their marketing communication message are: USP: Unique Selling Process is one of the key marketing communication message for the Australian tourism that is playing a great role in choosing the Australia for a tourist spot for the Canadas middle class people (Morgan, Pritchard and Pride, 2004). In this process, the Australia tourism spreads the message that they can offer best to these people which no other can offer, like; the pleasant weather of Australia and the great Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Australia is mainly based on the ocean which is the main tourism spot for any person. Other than Kosciuszko National Park Mountain which can give the best picture of the snow and green mixture (Moscardo and Murphy, 2016). Sharp brand look and feel: Tourism marketing of Australia is very specific and making people attracted towards the Australian geometry. They are very sharp on their marketing strategy to specify their business. Their tourism logos are very much open for everyone that can explain the main attraction (Prior and Beckley, 2007). Marketing Mix Adaptation: Canada is improved by the technology. Thus, Australian tourism industries have decided to send message by the online marketing to the people in Canada. They have updated their marketing processes and gone to the social marketing in the Canada. Thus, they have reached many people and accessed many customer data from the comments and reviews of the customers (Richter, 2002). They are available on the Facebook and also on the Twitter to reach people. Apart from that they have launched their marketing videos on the YouTube for getting more customers. Depending on the above discussion it is clear that tourism industries of Australia are very much active in the Canada to attract more customers. They have adapted many effective communication processes which is effective in this country (Scherer, Sam and Batty, 2005). They have implemented the marketing mix and also have produced the tourism Australia very straight for more understanding of the tourist spots and the benefits of the Australian tourism. They have enriched the joyous among most of the Canadian to come for Australia tour. According to the Australian magazines it is clear that the Canada people are very much interested to visit Australia not only for the tourist spots, but also for the weather which is rare in the Canada (Scherer, Sam and Batty, 2005). 2: Discuss how time orientation affects marketing of sporting events in France as compared to China. Time orientation is one of the most effective player in the marketing process no matter if it is a marketing of business or sports. Time frame sets with three types of orientations like past-orientation like America, future orientation like China and present orientation like France. Marketing is very much dependent on these three orientation (Shanka, Ali-Knight and Pope, 2002). In sports marketing people can get many ideas of new innovations and also the way the sports are changing. If a marketing is past oriented then this marketing process will never improve the marketing process as this marketing process is depending on the past traditions which is very much old. On the other hand if a company is following the present marketing orientation they, they will focus on the present marketing structure which will tell about the current changes in the industry. Differently if a company is future oriented they will focus on how the marketing can be improved according to the future progress of culture (Kotabe, 2014). The marketing process according to the time orientation of France and China are as follow: Effect of time-orientation on France Sports marketing: France is present- Oriented country. The marketing process of this country is also following the present orientation framework. They are focusing on the current progress and situation of the market (Sparks, Bowen and Wildman, 2000). Thus, the current events in the France effects much in the marketing process of sports. Many sports marketing events are focused on the present situations and sports events that can attract people. In this way, they dont bring too much innovation in the marketing process and their sports products. They just follow the present infrastructures and their consequences on the customers. Thus, they dont bring any innovations in the sports industry and as well as in the sports equipment. All the innovations are brought by the countries which are focused in the future- oriented in their marketing process (Van der Westhuyzen and Van der Merwe, 2001). Effect of time-orientation on China Sports marketing: China is undoubtedly focused on their future progress. They are future oriented countries and they are dreaming open- eyed to chase their future progress. They have brought any innovations in their marketing process to improve their products and place their innovations in the world for the first time (Kotabe, 2014). However, this time frame is also imposed on their sports marketing. They are focused to improve their sports equipment and the sports events. They brought many new innovations like; gymnastic equipment and their accessibility for all. Apart from all, China is the only country who can make new sports events in all sports. Their sports marketing events are mostly different from all. China brought visual sports event in the sports industry and have improved this visual promotions with 3D visual effect. With mobile gaming, China has placed on top of every country with their new sports innovations. Thus, China can bring many innovations for their near future games and also for indoor and outdoor games (Kotabe, 2014). Bibliography Kotabe, M. A. (2014). International Marketing (4th Asia-Pacific Ed.). . Australia: Milton, QLD,. Dominici, G. (2009). From Marketing Mix to e-Marketing Mix: a literature overview and classification.IJBM,4(9). https://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v4n9p17 Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., Pride, R. (2004).Destination branding. Oxford [England]: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Moscardo, G. Murphy, L. (2016). Using destination community wellbeing to assess tourist markets: A case study of Magnetic Island, Australia.Journal Of Destination Marketing Management,5(1), 55-64. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.01.003 Prior, S. Beckley, L. (2007). Characteristics of Recreational Anglers in the Blackwood Estuary, a Popular Tourist Destination in Southwestern Australia.Tourism In Marine Environments,4(1), 15-28. https://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427307784835679 Richter, T. (2002).Marketing mix standardisation in international marketing. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Scherer, J., Sam, M., Batty, R. (2005). Sporting sign wars: advertising and the contested terrain of sporting events and venues.IJSMM,1(1/2), 17. https://dx.doi.org/10.1504/ijsmm.2005.007119 Shanka, T., Ali-Knight, J., Pope, J. (2002). Intrastate Travel Experiences of International Students and Their Perceptions of Western Australia as a Tourist Destination.Tourism And Hospitality Research,3(3), 245-256. https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146735840200300305 Sparks, B., Bowen, J., Wildman, K. (2000).Restaurants as a contributor to tourist destination attractiveness. Gold Coast, Qld.: CRC Tourism. Van der Westhuyzen, B. Van der Merwe, J. (2001).The marketing mix. Observatory, South Africa: Future Managers.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
About Yahoo, Inc. Yahoo, Inc. is a multinational company that operates in the internet industry. It is a publicly held company that was established in 1994. The headquarters of the company is based in California, USA. The company offer products and services that comprise of communication, search and content tools.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The products and services are offered in a variety of languages. A significant amount of revenue for the company is generated from advertising. The company also generates revenue from other sources such as royalties among others. The paper seeks to analyze the performance of the company for the between 2010 and 2012. Analysis of trend Income statement Analysis the trend of various values and ratios of a company gives information on whether the performance of a company is improving or deterior ating. Analysis of income statement of the company shows that the revenue declined from $6,325 million in 2010 to $4,984 million in 2011. The value slightly improved in 2012 to $4,987 million. This shows a decline in the amount of revenue earned by the company over the period. The cost of revenue also declined from $2,628 million in 2010 to $1,503 million in 2011. In 2012, the cost of sales increased to $1,621 million. These changes resulted in a decline of gross profit over the three year period. The value declined from $3,697 million in 2010 to $3,482 million in 2011. The value further declined to $3,366 million in 2012. The operating expenses changed in the same trend as cost of revenue. The value declined from $2,925 million in 2010 to $2,681 million in 2011. In 2012, the operating expenses increased to $2,800 million. The resulting operating income increased from $773 million in 2010 to $800 million in 2011. However, in 2012 the operating income declined to $566 million. Analys is of income statement reveals that the company made a number of sales of its investments. For instance, in 2010, the company sold Zimbra, Inc. and HotJob. In 2012, the company sold Alibaba Group Shares at $4,603 million.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These sales boosted the value of net income. Net income declined from $1,232 million in 2010 to $1,049 million in 2011. The value increased to 3,945 million in 2012. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values. Balance sheet The total current assets declined from $4,346 million in 2010 to $3,453 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $5,653.The increase was attributed to the increase in the amount of total cash. Despite the sale of total investment, the value of non-current assets declined increased from $10,584 in 2010 to $11,330 in 2011. The value further increased to $11,451 in 2012. The value of cur rent liabilities, total liabilities and shareholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity declined between 2010 and 2011. The values increased in 2012. Finally, the value of total assets (total liabilities and stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s equity) declined from $14,928 million in 2010 to 14,783 million in 2011. In 2012, the value increased to $17,103 million. The graph presented below shows the trend of the values. Profitability ratios The profitability ratios are presented in appendix 1. Gross profit margin and net margin show that the profitability of the company improved over the period.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, return on assets and return on equity indicates that profitability declined in 2011 and improved in 2013. Finally, asset turnover indicates that the company reported a decline in efficiency over the period. Conclusion During the dot-co m bubble a number of companies reported a significant increase in the value of the company. However, after the bubble burst, the companies reported a significant decline in performance and some companies did not survive the burst. The results above indicate the bubble burst affected the operational performance and efficiency of Yahoo, Inc. However, the company used a number of turnaround strategies such as sale of investments. These strategies resulted in the success of the company after the dot-com bubble burst. Appendix 1 Profitability 2010 2011 2012 Gross profit margin % 58.46 69.85 67.5 Net Margin % 19.47 21.04 79.12 Return on Assets % 8.25 7.06 24.75 Return on Equity % 9.83 8.36 29.12 Asset Turnover 0.42 0.34 0.31 This essay on Analysis of Financial Performance of Yahoo Inc. was written and submitted by user Keith V. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Evaluation Of Dark Tourism Tourism Essays Evaluation Of Dark Tourism Tourism Essay Evaluation Of Dark Tourism Tourism Essay The purpose of this research undertaking is a critical analysis of dark touristry in relation to its application to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York, USA. This thesis will analyze dark touristry, related to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, shadiness of dark touristry, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and schemes of them, so to depth analysis of inside informations of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The literature reappraisal shows secondary research and quantitative research, conducted on dark touristry is, the shadiness model of dark touristry and some schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. This indicates analyses construction of the instance survey. Through this thesis, the writer purpose and aims were achieved, and farther suggestions and analysis are provided which could assist Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum better match their purpose and mission. Chapter 1. Introduction In this subdivision, why Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum have been chosen as a instance survey are explained. September 11th, 2001 North America suffered a most serious terrorist onslaught by al Al-qaida. The World Trade Center in New York was destroyed and many people died in this onslaught. Nowadays, American and New York authorities decide construct Ground Zero in the site of the World Trade Center and construct the 9/11 Memorial Museum for people to remembers and understand how awful terrorist act is. After the 9/11 onslaughts, there are many people remembered victims through in many ways, and visitant Numberss increased. In recent old ages, the dark touristry has start to develop ( Sharpley and Stone, 2009 ) , and the 9/11 onslaughts shocked the whole universe therefore, Ground Zero as a new edifice and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as the chief memorial topographic point, these are the chief grounds for the writer taking them as a instance survey. These are related to dark touristry. Purpose: To set about critical analysis of dark touristry in relation to its application to Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum. Aims: To critically measure dark touristry. To analyze Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as memorial sites. To measure touristry direction schemes in relation to equilibrating the negative and positive side of dark touristry associating to touristry at Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. Chapter 2. Literature Reappraisal 2.1 Introduction This portion is composed of research and information into the significance of dark touristry and its assorted sunglassess shadiness, the state of affairs of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and the schemes used to pull off Ground Zero and memorial museum. 2.2 Evaluation of dark touristry Each touristry merchandise has a complex design, therefore it is non can easy to definite dark touristry as dark or light ( Stone, 2006 ) . In this state of affairs, in order to separate dark touristry, the writer needs a prudent graduated table to reason and analyze the shadiness of dark touristry. Stone ( 2006 ) made a sum-up of the different shadiness of dark touristry. Table 1: shadiness of dark touristry Beginnings: Rock ( 2006 ) : A dark touristry spectrum: sensed merchandise characteristics of dark touristry within a darkest lightest model of supply. Each dark touristry site could be analysed by this model, to specify its shadiness. For Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum the writer will utilize this tabular array to analyze the shadiness from the definition of dark touristry mentioned above, it is easy to see that dark touristry relates to decease and agony, Stone ( 2006 ) mentioning to Miles ( 2002 ) suggests that the difference between sites of decease and agony and sites associated with decease and agony should be understood. The former is the site at a topographic point where there has been decease and agony, and the latter is a site which is connected to decease and agony. Land Zero was built at the site of the World Trade Center, which was destroyed in 2001 and in which about 3000 people died ( CNN intelligence 2009 ) , Ground Zero corresponds to the sites of decease and agony . On the other manus 9/11 Memorial Museum is non built on the site of the World Trade Center, it merely near to the site and its chief inte nt is to work as a commemoration, so this museum is portion of the sites associated with decease and agony . However, thorough other facet in table 1 and based on the chief theory from Stone ( 2006 ) and Miles ( 2002 ) , the sunglassess of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum and impact of dark touristry will be analysed tardily in the Findings subdivision. 2.3 An analysis of Ground Zero. In 09/11/2001, there was an onslaught by terrorists and the World Trade Center was destroyed, New York is presently reconstructing this site which has a new name Land Zero . 9/11 was the deadliest terrorist onslaught in the history of world, and now there is a different attitude to related to this site. On May 1, 2011 President Obama announced that American Navy Seals had killed Osama bin Laden who was the originator of the 9/11 onslaughts. Alter ( 2011 ) points out that when America heard this intelligence they celebrated and reflected on, most of them traveling to the evidences of the White House in Washington and to Ground Zero in New York. In this manner Ground Zero may be a topographic point for Americans to retrieve the people who died on 11th September. Although the World Trade Center was destroyed, but now when the people look at Ground Zero, they will remember the memory of 9/11 and they mourn the dead people. In order to offer a good topographic point to people for memory the authorities is constructing a museum in 2006 and put into usage in 2011 ( 9/11 Memorial Museum ) . As can be seen from this topographic point today, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial museum becomes the chief topographic point to hold a memory of dead people. These information which mentioned above show one of the chief intent of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum is to retrieve victims. In this sense, the provide information help the writer achieve the nonsubjective 2, which is Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum are memorial sites in New York. Memory as the chief ground for Land Zero, and in recent old ages, particularly after 9/11 American authorities has been endlessly the implementating rigorous anti- terrorist act steps. Miller ( 2011 ) points that aÃâ Ã ¦the 9/11 terrorist onslaughts set the phase for the War on Terrorism, in the signifier of subsequent U.S led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. In the yesteryear, there have been other terrorist onslaughts on America, but none created such a great influence, in the sense of 9/11 which meant terrorist declared war on worlds, and after this event the American authorities made a strong response to terrorist act, and the rebuilding at the site of the World Trade Center means people do non bow to terrorist act ( Walsh, 2001 ) . In this state of affairs, Ground Zero will be a mark of war on terrorist act. Because of the 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts, the U.S authorities launched a monolithic countermove to terrorist act, and besides affect on the policies and schemes. More inside informations will be analysed in the Findings subsequently. 2.4 Schemes of Ground Zero and 9/11 memorial museum. Sliverstein et al. , ( 2012 ) in their study refer to after the 9/11 the chief meaning and action of the World Trade Center is rebuild and memorial. Land Zero is the new edifice on the site of the World Trade Center and today the chief topographic point to retrieve 9/11 victims is at the 9/11 Memorial Museum. The writer summarises a clip line about the chief actions of America and New York between 2001 to 2011. Table 2: Main schemes of America and New York after the 9/11 This tabular array merely a summarise of the chief schemes and action that authorities used in the past 10 old ages. Through this tabular array could assist the writer clean understand the chief action of American and New York authorities to make after 9/11 terrorist act onslaughts. In the findings, the writer will utilize this tabular array to analysis more item of the authorities do and related to the significants of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to analyses. Except schemes and policies on table 2, the writer will based on Porter s ( 1985 ) generic scheme to do a professional schemes anaysis of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum. There are two ways which suitable for Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum to accomplish their mission and assist the writer achieve nonsubjective 3: distinction and cost leading. Although the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are not-for-profits doing administrations but their chief intent is do more people understand 9/11 and how atrociou s terrorist act is. In this state of affairs, Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum besides needed schemes to develop them. When an administration uses a different scheme, it seeks to offer something alone to its clients that they will appreciate. This can be found in marketing gross revenues or the existent merchandise or service. This scheme normally involves bear downing a premium monetary value to clients to cover the higher production costs and added-value characteristic. If a administration uses the cost leading scheme so it aims to be the lowest-cost manufacturer in the industry to which it belongs. This scheme is normally employed by a big concern that produces a criterion with small distinction. It will offer price reductions on the merchandises to farther addition net incomes and market portion ( Porter, 2004 ) . The footing of above-average public presentation within an industry is sustainable competitory advantage. A cost leading attack means a steadfast sets out to go the low cost manufacturer in its industry. Note that a cost leader must accomplish para or at least propinquity on the bases of distinction, even though it relies on cost leading for its competitory advantage, if more than one company purpose for cost leading, normally this is black, it is frequently achieved by economic systems of graduated table. In this instance survey, the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for tourers, although some other museum besides feel free but the Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum attempt to add more value on their merchandises. In the museum, the administration offers more utile value and information to clients ( 9/11 Memorial Museum Organisation ) more service inside informations will be analysed in the Findingss. The distinction attack means that a house seeks to be alone in its industry along some dimensions that are widely valued by purchasers ( Porter 2004 ) . A discriminator can non disregard its cost place. In all countries that do non impact its distinction, it should seek to diminish the cost ; in the distinction country, the costs should at least be lower than the monetary value premium it receives from the purchasers. The countries of distinction can be merchandise, distribution, gross revenues, selling, service and image. In this paper, because of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are free for clients, therefore the cost of merchandises in non gong to be the centre of analysis in this paper. How are Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum different? Based on Donofrio ( 2010 ) and Nevins ( 2005 ) refer that 9/11 is the most serious and atrocious terrorist onslaught in the history of world, and caused a really serious impact on worlds, particularly households. In this regard, Ground Z ero as the site of this terribel incident it has a particular significance, but besides it is the most direct topographic point for people to hold a commemoration for 9/11. For 9/11 Memorial Museum, today this site has become one of the most of import topographic points for people to retrieve 9/11. Because the topographic point of Land Zero is crowded by traffic, if excessively many people go at that place to for recollection it will impact on traffic, so the authorities built a museum near by the site of the World Trade Center. For the grounds mentioned above, the Land Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum are different from other museum and dark touristry sites. Differentiation scheme is suited for them to supply a high degree of merchandises and services. In the findings the writer will do more analysis about these two schemes. 2.5 Decision This chapter makes a summarised rating of dark touristry, the writer pays more attending on the shadiness of Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, this is in order to understand the nature of dark touristry, and the other portion assess the impact of dark touristry will be analysed in the Findingss. Because the writer considered understanding nature of the dark touristry could assist author to better analysis. Dark touristry is a whole industry, in this paper the writer chose Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum as instance survey, so in this portion writer besides give some short rating of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, a simple analysis the shadiness of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum, and what their mean, it gives out a brief sum-up of them. The portion of 2.2 3 the writer based on the features of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum point out two suited schemes for them to develop, accomplish their mission and seek to offer a high degree of service and informatio n to tourers. In portion 2.2 of literature reappraisal, the writer gives out an overall model and construction of the whole paper, and expounded which different aspects the writer considered and analysed to accomplish the purpose of this paper based on other writers theories which author researched through secondary research and qualitative research. Chapter Three: Methodology 3.1 Introduction There are many different attack and methods to roll up informations and information in order to accomplish the ultimate end and work out the research inquiry. This chapter mentions how and why the research informations were collected, and besides advantages and disadvantages of the chosen methods and how to rectify the disadvantage are presented. The information collected are dependable, believable, and reliable. Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) point out that the chief research methods could be divided into primary research, secondary research, qualitative research and quantitative research. As the writer determined the overall usage of secondary research was chosen in this undertaking to accomplish the purpose, so methodological analysis will supply sufficient justification to explicate why secondary research was selected. Thoms ( 2009 ) points out that successful research should include the undermentioned elements: intent, inquiry, attack, and method. Hart ( 2007. p28 ) argues that the process for explicating a method is a system of methods and regulations to be collected and analysis of informations and information. In the undermentioned paragraph the writer will follow Thoms ( 2009 ) and Hart s ( 2007 ) elements to show the methodological analysis and analyse why secondary research was chosen to roll up the informations and how to analyze the information. 3.2 The Research Procedure To find the pick of attack in the research procedure, the writer will utilize the undermentioned Research Process Onion theoretical account , introduced by Saunders et Al. ( 2003 ) is used. The research procedure onion allows the research worker to place the many different beds in the research procedure and to extinguish or place the most suited procedure. The research procedure onion consists of the undermentioned five different beds: The theoretical account is used by get downing from measure one, the outer bed, which illustrates research doctrine, and skining off the beds when different standards have been set until making the terminal, which introduces the possible informations aggregation methods. Once the last measure has been reached, the parametric quantities of the research have been established. 3.3 Type of research The first phase of the research onion is called research doctrine. Saunders et Al ( 2003, p. 83 ) argue that the research doctrine depends on aÃâ Ã ¦the manner that you think about the development of the cognition. There are four chief doctrines that are used to near the research: rationalist, interpretative, pragmatism, and phenomenology. There are two characteristics of positivism doctrine, they are belief that the natural and the societal scientific disciplines could assist the writer achieve the purpose through the aggregation of informations and information and to explicate, so offer an external world informations support and explicate the points ( Bryman 2001 ) . On the other manus, the interpretivistic doctrine asserts that the premises of both doctrines are indefensible ; particularly in instances where the aims of survey are influenced by many factors, and are highly hard to insulate and command in experimental research lab scenes ( Hirschheim and Klein 1994 ) . The realistic doctrine portions two characteristics with a positivism doctrine: a belief that the natural and the societal scientific disciplines should use the same sorts of attack to the aggregation of informations and to account, and a committedness to the position that there is an external world to which scientists direct their attending ( Bryman 2 001 ) . The first three are non appropriate to this survey as the rationalist paradigm requires chiefly quantitative informations and uses big samples ; interpretative paradigm is more concerned with bring forthing theories and pragmatism investigates relationship between two variables. The latter 1 has been used for this survey as it was the most suited for this type of research. The phenomenological attack can be applied to a individual instance, which is appropriate to this research survey as the research worker used one Land Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum as a instance survey for probe. The usage of phenomenology in the scenario so was to look into what presented itself that is the tourer attractive force, its installations and public presentation and so research behind the scenes and inquiry how the touristry operators sell themselves and of any particular techniques which are used to make this. This is summarized by Mariampolski ( 2001 ) : Harmonizing to phenomenology, the intent of the human scientific disciplines which presumptively includes market research is to prise beneath the surface to expose these classs and wonts of head that form out perceptual experiences. This research survey lends itself to a realistic attack, where the writer recognises that countries such as strategy and visitors attitudes can non be measured and studied in the same manner physical procedure can. Alternatively, the writer wants to detect the mechanisms that brought Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum prosper and where possible, will seek to mensurate the theory applied within the survey. The being of viing, or even accounts is one of the characteristics of realist research. ( Fisher, 2004. P 16 ) 3.4 Research schemes and attack The research aims were to look into the cardinal prosodies as indexs for success ; this involved conducting secondary research by analyzing informations and studies. Based on the aims, it can be said that this research is an explanatory survey. Harmonizing to Robson ( 1993 ) , this is a type of find is: What is go oning ; to seek new penetrations ; to inquire inquiries and to measure phenomena in a new visible radiation. Exploratory surveies are about detecting new information and bring forthing thoughts and hypotheses. The research worker explored the factors that contribute to Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum, and how these topographic points deriving a competitory advantage as these were unknown prior to carry oning the survey. The attack to the survey involved a combination of inductive and deductive attacks, inductive because the research worker collected informations and so analysed it to pull decisions and offer theories ; deductive because the research worker studied old research and grounds through the literature reappraisal and so compared it to findings to see how they corresponded or contrasted with each other. The strength of inductive statements is frequently weaker than tax write-offs. Tax write-offs are certainties but inductive decisions are chances ( Fisher, 2004. P 76 ) These diverse methods country peculiarly suited for the research as it requires different analysis and allows for more research to be conducted and analysed. Some qualitative informations were used for secondary research, affecting analyzing statistic at figures which relates to the three aims in happening out the indexs of success. Once this information was analysed decisions were offered to how Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum additions a competitory advantage. 3.5 Research pick The survey will profit from the usage of current secondary information to do clear many of the contradictory findings throughout assorted writers work, hence, a report-based attack to data aggregation was adopted, by analyzing the one-year studies and studies conducted. In the undermentioned subdivision the writer will analyes why secondary research was chosen. Gene ( 1976 ) points out that secondary research is a manner to reanalyse informations to reply the inquiry, to accomplish the intent, or use old informations to reply a new inquiry. Therefore, secondary research is through books, diaries, web sites, or other research workers findings were used to roll up informations and stuff. For primary research and secondary research each have their ain advantages, for primary research, Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) indicate that primary research have the undermentioned advantages. The first is primary research which could let the research worker collect the informations they want and report it in a good manner to back up the research worker. The 2nd is primary research enables the writer to better appreciation and command how the information is collected. The last is the manner to assist companies who under take primary research to maintain information hidden from the rivals and perchance offer an information advantage to these companies. Primary research has some lacks but for the writer, the undertaking s research will utilize the secondary research. The writer will first point out is to the advantages of secondary research. Steward and Kamins ( 1993 ) besides given some advantages of secondary research. The biggest advantage of secondary research is salvaging clip and cost, because secondary research allows the writer to utilize of secondary informations to back up a point of position and this will be easier, and sometimes secondary research could supply a higher quality of informations than from a new research, like primary research. If the writer wants to obtain some information about suggestions for job planning, research hypotheses and research methods, secondary research could supply these extra advantages. In add-on, secondary research besides helps research workers to clear up the issue they want to analyze, and old primary research can assist clear up the focal point of the survey. Although there are some lacks with secondary research, Bryman and Bell ( 2007, p.334 ) point out the restriction of secondary research as the undermentioned three: 1. Lack of informations associating to the research. 2. The information that are collected are complex ; some of these informations have a big figure of respondents and variables. 3. The quality of informations is non governable. 3.6. Construction of the research For this thesis, a batch of informations were obtained from mentions beginning such as books, diaries, studies, and webs. Most books which author found were in university library. Not merely books, but besides a big figure of diaries, magazines, E bookwere used. For secondary research, the writer besides included information from found web sites. The web of all the information from the New York authorities web sites, local authorities web sites, other studies, and Emerald, in these informations besides include information from E books, these can guarantee the information s genuineness, dependability, truth and credibleness. Real informations are better to back up this thesis, and do this thesis more believable and do up defect of secondary research. Harmonizing to the purpose and aims, there is much information and information to back up this thesis, nevertheless, many of these informations beginnings are non irrelevant. For this ground, the writer will see many facets of this thesis to take the relevant, believable, accurate information, the writer will besides see the quality of informations, twelvemonth of information, and when it was published. 3.7 Assessment conventional Rudestam and Newton ( 2001, p. 60 ) argue that you need to maintain a position, and do an rating of the advantages of this survey, at the same clip do a comparative survey with same or similar jobs. The intent of the appraisal diagram is to guarantee that informations aggregation is believable, dependable, effectual and could be used for this survey. 1. Survey of major issues: Analysis of what are the chief issues to be investigated and definition of the construct of the writer s work, allows comparing of similar surveies. 2. Hypothesiss To ask and measure what hypotheses has been stated and whether the theoretical model is narrowed or broadened 3.The appropriate informations for the survey To oppugn whether the collected informations are appropriate and how they have influenced consequences and findings. 3.8 Decision This chapter explains why the writer would take secondary research to roll up and measure informations. Meanwhile, the writer besides cognizant of the restriction of secondary research, hence, the writer would analysis more information and theories to back up this survey. In this portion, the construction will be illustrated that how the writer collect information, how to choose suited, right and accurate information. Chapter 4 Findingss 4.1 Evaluation of Dark Tourism. Part 4.1 will present the state of affairs of dark touristry and supply a depth analysis of dark touristry in order for the reader to derive an overall construct of dark touristry, and the inside informations of Ground Zero and 9/11 Memorial Museum will be given in portion 4.2. This paper uses Ground Zero and the 9/11 Memorial Museum for the instance survey. The museum is a sort of exhibition demoing images, voices, and experiences, hence, this portion critically examines the value that modern-day and controversial exhibitions techniques play in the visitant experience at sites of historical significance. Harmonizing to Lennon ( 2000 ) , dark touristry is a sort of touristry products that signify a cardinal displacement in the manner in which decease, catastrophe and atrociousness are being handled. Sharpley and Stone ( 2011 ) besides indicate out that dark touristry includes travel to sites about deceases, catastrophes and atrociousnesss. It can be easy to understand the definition of dark touristry ( besides known as black touristry or grief touristry ) as a sort of touristry merchandise, intending a topographic point that people visit in memory of decease, catastrophe, agony, force or atrociousness. One emerging country of particular involvement has been identified by Lennon et Al. ( 2000 ) as dark touristry. This type of touristry involves visits to dark sites such as battlefields, scenes of hideous offenses or Acts of the Apostless of race murder, for illustration concentration cantonments. Dark touristry remains a little niche market, driven by a broad assortment of visitant motives such as bereavement, recollection, instruction, ghastly wonder or even amusement, depending on the societal, cultural and political context ( Stone, 2006 ) . In this survey, the writer takes a impersonal stance on this issue. There are both positive and negative facets in modern-day exhibition techniques. Consequently, a peculiarly complex issue revolves around the ingestion of dark touristry. Peoples normally visit such dark sites for affectional and controversial thoughts. Person, within modern-day society, visits such topographic points out of regard and recollection. Person could obtain a se cret pleasance in staring on the macabre. While, some people contemplate their ain mortality at such attractive forces and exhibitions ( Stone, 2006 ) . Presents, visitants are no longer satisfied to droop on the beach or gather around the hotel saloon with other tourers. The increasing attending paid to the phenomenon of dark touristry may arguably be diagnostic of the tendency within academic circles to place and label specific signifiers of touristry, or to subdivide touristry into niche merchandises and markets ( Novelli, 2005 ) . Visiting Nazi decease cantonments in eastern Europe as a vacation itinerary, basking household field daies on the battlegrounds in northern France, buying keepsakes at Ground Zero and leting schoolchildren to stare upon tools of anguish at the London Dungeon, are all illustrations of the macabre exhibition. Consequently, the term dark touristry has been bit by bit come ining the populace, such as academic and media discourse. By definition, dark touristry mean the visits, knowing or otherwise, to purposeful / non-purposeful sites which offer a presentation of decease or agony ( Stone, 2005 ) . Similarly, Tarlow ( 2005 ) identifies dark touristry as trials to topographic points where calamities or historic deceases have occurred and that continue to impact on people`s lives. Dark touristry sites can be divided into several classs and can be defined in footings of site construction and tourer experience characteristics. The usual type of site is interpretative and historical, whether it is located at the primary scene of an atrociousness or at a geographically unrelated topographic point. Often taking on the signifier of a museum, such topographic points exhibit a narrative and an event-based position of force, taking the tourers through the history and inside informations of a peculiar calamity. An in-context technique, ( Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, 1998 ) to contextualise via labelling and account, characterises such shows and works to show force as interpretable and cognitive through instruction and information. 4.1-1 Positive affects of dark touristry Tung and Ritchie ( 2011 ) states that touristry is a manner for people seek the experiences and open a manner to soaking up of those experiences. Peoples cod experiences through travel, travel different topographic point, run into different people and civilization and experiment different life manner. Understand universe could assist us understand ourselves and develop ourselves ( Lanterman 2007 referred to Boniface 1998 ) . Although people can larn many things from school, but experiences of life should experiment by people themselves, touristry provides a manner to us to larn. In ancient clip, Marco Polo traveled to Asia from Europe, when he backed to his state, he brought many progress engineering to his state and made European experiment a batch of new things which they neer saw before. Today, with developing of dark touristry, there are many new things for tourers to see enrich themselves. With the grade of substructure and normalcy that surround the supply of dark touristry, even on changing graduated tables ( Stone and Sharpley, 2009 ) , the progressively socially acceptable regard on decease and its reconceptualisation either for amusement, instruction or memorial intent offers both the person and corporate ego a practical confrontational mechanism to get down the procedure of neutralizing the impact of mortality. The educational significance of dark touristry. Sharpley et Al. ( 2010 ) pr
Sunday, February 23, 2020
The three works, Blakes London , Arnolds Dover Beach (1867) and Joyces Araby - Essay Example But with the onset of Araby, Joyce launches the consciousness of a boy and his artistic doom, which will become yet more pronounced with the concept pf "paralysis" that he ultimately voices in "A portrait of the Artist as a Young Man". London, by Blake is decadent with a Baudelaire-ian "Fleur Du Mal" backstreet experience. London, by Blake is littered with poverty and the cheap glitters of lustful night, which spreads through the nightmarish experiences of Dover Beach where ignorant armies fight at night. The only this that is of value is "truth". Joyce challenges this truth that for the boy becomes a disillusioned journey into sexuality and the bazaar named Araby. In an Eliot-ish trance he climbs to the upper floor of his room and whispers the name of his beloved in an ecstatic symphony, until he is able to rise beyond the ashes and the cesspool squalor of the city. All the poems describe a different waste land and in vain search for a remedy. While Blake, we find a London that is "chartered" and chequered with misfortune, plague, curses and a lyricism that can empathize with the masses. London is full of cries, sighs and darkness.